Monday, April 4, 2022

Generations of Computer

Generations of Computer

We call the development of computers at different stages of Generations of Computer. The development of computers has been going on for many years and is still going on today.
The seven generations of computers are divided on the basis of computer development:

A. First Generation of Computer (1946–1953)-

The first generation period dates back to 1937–1953. Two great scientists created the world's first and largest ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) computer. It was a Fully Electronic Digital Computer. This is where the first computer generation began.

But Vacuum tube was used for memory in computers of this generation.
Due to the Vacuum Tube, these computers were larger in size, limited memory and consumed more power. These computers used to generate large amounts of heat.

Features of first-generation computers:

1. Manufactured by Vacuum tube
2. Use of machine language
3. more expensive
4. too big in size
5. Overweight and slow motion
6. AC required
7. Use of large amounts of electricity
8. Use of punch card and magnetic tape for input and output

Names of first-generation computers:

5. MARK-1

B. Second Generation of Computer (1954–1963)-

The second-generation period is considered to be from 1954–1962. The transistor was utilised to replace the vacuum tube in this generation. In 1947, Willom Shockly created/invented the transistor.

In this generation of computers, magnetic cores were used for primary memory and magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used for secondary memory.

The second generation of computers used two types of operating systems:

I. Batch processing
II. Multiprogramming operating system.

Features of second-generation computers:

1. Manufactured by Transistor
2. were more reliable than the first generation
3. It used assembly and a high-level language such as Fortran, Cobol
4. Smaller in size than the first generation
5. They produced less heat
6. Less electricity was used than the first generation
7. Faster than earlier computers
8. AC required

Names of second-generation computers:

1. IBM 1620
2. IBM 7094
3. CDC 1604
4. CDC 3600
5. UNIVAC 1108

C. Third Generation of Computer (1964–1971) -

The third generation period was considered from 1963–1972. Transistor was replaced by IC (Integrated Circuit) in this generation. In this, the transistor was shortened and placed on the silicon chip.

Due to this the speed and efficiency of the computer increased significantly. IC (integrated circuit) was invented by Jack Kilby. Remote processing, time-sharing, and multiprogramming operating systems were used in computers of this generation.

Features of third-generation computers:

1. Use of Integrated Circuit
2. More reliable than the first and second generation
3. Small and fast in size but still tough in maintenance
4. Less energy consumption than other generation
5. AC required
6. Use of Mouse and Keyboard
7. Use of high-level language like- FORTRAN-I to IV, COBOL, PASCAL, BASIC, ALGOL

Names of third-generation computers:

1. IBM-360 Series
2. Honeywell - 6000 series
3. PDP (Personal Data Processor)
4. IBM-370/168
5. TDC-316

D. Fourth Generation of Computer(1972–1984) -

The fourth-generation period is considered to be from 1972–1984. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits were used in computers of this generation. This VLSI circuit consists of about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements on a Silicon Chip. Which is called Micro Processor.

Intel introduced the first microprocessor in 1971. Which was invented by his employee. They named it Intel 4004.

In 1981, IBM released the Micro Computer, often known as the Personal Computer (PC), and in 1989, Apple released the Macintosh (Personal Computer).

These computers were becoming more prevalent in many aspects of society.
Because they were less expensive, quicker, and more dependable than previous generations.

Internet, GUI (Graphical User Interface), and operating systems (such as MS-Dos, MS Windows, and Apple OS) developed in fourth generation computers.

Features of fourth-generation computers:

1. Use of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit
2. Less expense and faster
3. Smaller in size and less pliable
4. Less use of electricity
5. No AC needed
6. Maintenance Simple
7. Easy to operate and walk
8. Use of high-level language like - C, C ++, DBASE

Names of fourth-generation computers:

1. Dec 10
2. Star 1000
3. PDP 11
4. CRAY-1
5. CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)
6. PCs

E. Fifth Generation of computer(1986–1991) -

The fifth-generation period is considered from 1984–1990. This generation includes the computers of the present and the future ones.
This generation's computers are more powerful, quicker, more technologically advanced, and have more memory.

It made use of a ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integrated) circuit, which may have up to one crore components.
This generation is mainly related to Parallel Processing Hardware Artificial Intelligence software.

The fifth-generation aims to develop devices that can respond to logos used in common language. This makes computers work like humans.
They use high-level languages like C, C ++, and Java.

Features of fifth-generation computers:

1. Use of ULSI technology
2. Development of Artificial Intelligence
3. Using Portable PC and Desktop PC
4. Internet, E-mail and WWW (World Wide Web) developed
5. User-friendly interface and development of
6. Multimedia features like sound, graphics, images, and text were created.
7. Use of high-level languages ​​like C, C ++, Java, .Net, and ASP
8. Faster, reliable and cheap

Names of fifth-generation computers:

1. Desktop
2. Laptop
3. Notebook
4. Ultrabook
5. Chromebook

G. Sixth Generation of computer(1992–2002) -

In 1983, IBM introduced a new computer with its name PC. The product was first introduced in New York City and then taken to different parts of United States. The processor of Sixth Generation Computer was Zilog Z80 which could handle 4.5 million instructions per second (MIPs). It had 16-bit memory, eight expansion slots and MS-DOS as an operating system. 
CD-ROM drives were used by Sixth Generation Computer for reading purposes only. Most people called it IBM Personal Computer or IBM PC. This is sometimes referred to as personal computing period. 
During Sixth Generation period, many improvements were made in the field of computers such as 8088 microprocessor, 256 KB RAM and 5 MB Hard Drive. However these days very few people use these types of computers because they are not very reliable or cannot keep up with their present pace of work.

Features of sixth-generation computers:

1. Using Multiple Processor
2. Use of Parallel Vector Technology
3. Nano Technology
4. Quantum computing bits
5. A chip has millions of components using ULSI technology.
6. very small in size
7. Lesser and faster

Names of sixth-generation computers:

1. Optical computers - Optical computers use photons. Which has very high speed. A blue laser search by Donald Fraxier found that this technology develops super-fast, lightweight, and minicomputer in cost of work.

2. Hologram Computer– Hologram is a three-dimensional picture. Which are made by recording the intensity of light. Thus it creates a suitable illumination ie light fixture. It can be the size of a pen, watch, or anything.

3. Parallel Vector computer– Fijistu Corporation is planning to build a system with more than 200 vector processors. However, this sixth-generation has another goal. Tera flops mean achieving ten arithmetic operations per second and this can be done by constructing a scheme with more than a thousand processors. Another major development of Fujistu is WAN.

H. Seventh Generation of Computer(2003–present) -

Seventh generation is called Quantum Computers. It uses qubits for processing data and represents many possible states simultaneously. Because of large number of qubits, quantum computers can process vast amounts of data in just one cycle, much faster than traditional computers. The first commercial quantum computer from D-Wave Systems was released in 2011. Based on their production, it is considered to be an eighth generation computer. It was designed with 128 qubits and 2MB memory space.

Features of seventh-generation computers:

1. It consists of 4K video and 360 viewing on a full-size screen.
2. Today's modern games can be played smoothly on computers of this generation.
3. Watch 4K HDR movies with Ultra HD Blue-ray for excellent clarity and Luminance 1.
4. Quick sync video technology enhances the capabilities of most videos.
5. With the help of Hyper-Threading Technology you can multitask without any interruptions.
6. With the help of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) user data also has strong security on Email, Internet, and Local Disk.
7. With intelligent software, the system helps in faster work and quick completion of commands.

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